Chapter 11   --   Expressing Past Time

 

The Simple Past Tense is used to describe an action which occurred at a specified time, and is now over.   This form is most commonly used when we tell stories, relate history, or retell events.   It is used with a clear description of time, such as “yesterday, “last week”, “in the year 1776”, and so on.   The endings for this tense are added to the verb stems.

 

The endings for verb group 1 are -é, -aste, -ó, -amos, asteis, -aron

 

Group 1     regular verbs         example: pasar, to pass   (the stem is pas-)

 

Stem            Ending           Spanish                                    English

pas               é                  yo pasé                                    I passed, did pass

pas               aste             pasaste                                You passed, did pass

pas               ó                 él pasó                                      He passed, did pass

pas               ó                 ella pasó                                   She passed, did pass

pas               ó                 usted pasó                                 You passed, did pass

pas               ó                 quién pasó                                Who passed, did pass

pas               amos           nosotras, -os pasamos               We passed, did pass

pas               asteis          vosotras, -os pasasteis               You passed, did pass

pas               aron            ellas, - os pasaron                      They passed, did pass

pas               aron            ustedes pasaron                        You passed, did pass

pas               aron             quienes pasaron                        Who passed, did pass

            note:     if a stem ends with -c, the -c is changed to -qu before an ending that begins with e or i

                        if a stem ends with -g, the -g is changed to -gu before an ending that begins with e or i

In group 1, the following verbs are irregular in the simple past tense:

          andar ( to go): anduve, anduviste, anduvo, anduvimos, anduvisteis, anduvieron

          cruzar ( to cross): crucé, cruzaste, cruzó, cruzamos, cruzasteis, cruzaron

                        like cruzar:   gozar, to enjoy     rezar, to have to do with     tropezar, to meet unexpectedly

          dar ( to give): , diste, dió, dimos, disteis, dieron

          estar ( to be): estuve, estuviste, estuvo, estuvimos, estuvisteis, estuvieron

 

In group 2, the regular endings are -í, -iste, -ió, -imos, -isteis, -ieron

 

Group 2     regular verbs         example: vender, to sell   (the stem is vend-)

vend             í                  yo vendí                                    I sold, did sell

vend             iste              vendiste                               You sold, did sell

vend                            él vendió                                   He sold, did sell

vend                            ella vendió                                She sold, did sell

vend                            usted vendió                             You sold, did sell

vend                            quién vendió                            Who sold, did sell

          note: if the stem ends in -a, -e, or -o, the ending -ió is changed to -yó

vend             imos            nosotras, -os vendimos              We sold, did sell

vend             isteis             vosotras, -os vendisteis              You sold, did sell

vend             ieron            ellas, -os vendieron                   They sold, did sell

vend             ieron            ustedes vendieron                      You sold, did sell

vend             ieron            quienes vendieron                     Who sold, did sell

          note: if the stem ends in -a, -e, or -o, the ending -ieron is changed to -yeron

 

In group 2 the following verbs are irregular in the simple past tense:

          caber ( to fit): cupe, cupiste, cupo, cupimos, cupisteis, cupieron

          haber ( to have): hube, hubiste, hubo, hubimos, hubisteis, hubieron

          hacer ( to do): hice, hiciste, hizo, hicimos, hicisteis, hicieron

          poder ( to be able):pude, pudiste, pudo, pudimos, pudisteis, pudieron

          poner ( to put): puse, pusiste, puso, pusimos, pusisteis, pusieron

          querer ( to want): quise, quisiste, quiso, quisimos, quisisteis, quisieron

          saber ( to know): supe, supiste, supo, supimos, supisteis, supieron

          ser ( to be): fuí, fuiste, fué, fuimos, fuisteis, fueron

          tener ( to have): tuve, tuviste, tuvo, tuvimos, tuvisteis, tuvieron

          traer ( to bring): traje, trajiste, trajo, trajimos, trajisteis, trajeron

 

Compound verbs have the same irregularities as the base verb.

          thus atraer becomes atraje, atrajiste, atrajo, atrajimos, atrajisteis, atrajeron

 

In group 3, the regular endings are -í, -iste, -ió, -imos, -isteis, -ieron

Group 3     regular verbs         example: admitir: to admit   (the stem is admit-)

admit           í                   yo admití                                   I admitted, did admit

admit           iste               admitiste                               You admitted, did admit

admit                           él admitió                                  He admitted, did admit

admit                           ella admitió                               She admitted, did admit

admit                           usted admitió                            You admitted, did admit

admit                           quién admitió                            Who admitted, did admit

            note: if the stem ends in a vowel, the ending -ió is changed to -yó

admit           imos            nosotras, - os admitimos            We admitted, did admit

admit           isteis             vosotras, - os admitisteis            You admitted, did admit

admit           ieron            ellas, - os admitieron                  They admitted, did admit

admit           ieron            ustedes admitieron                      You admitted, did admit

admit           ieron            quienes admitieron                       Who admitted, did admit

            note: if the stem ends in a vowel, the ending -ieron is changed to -yeron

 

In group 3 the following verbs are irregular in the simple past tense:

          ceñir, to encircle: ceñí, ceñiste, ciñó, ceñimos, ceñisteis, ciñeron

                        like ceñir           constreñir, to constrict             estreñir, to constipate               * gruñir, to howl

                                                heñir, to knead                         reñir, to quarrel                        teñir, to tint,dye

                        [*gruñí, gruñiste, gruñó, gruñimos, gruñisteis, gruñeron]          

          consentir, to consent: consentí, consentiste, consintió, consentimos, consentisteis, consintieron

                        like consentir    advertir, to advertise                convertir, to convert                 diferir, to differ

                                                divertir, to enjoy                       divertirse, to enjoy oneself       hervir, to boil

                                                mentir, to speak falsely, lie      preferir, to prefer                     referir, to refer

                                                sentir, to regret, feel sorry        sentirse, to feel well or ill         

          decir, to say: dije, dijiste, dijo, dijimos, dijisteis, dijeron

                        like decir          bendecir, to bless                     contradecir,to contradict         desdecir, to disagree

                                                interdecir, to forbid, prohibit   maldecir , to curse                     predecir, to predict          

          dormir, to sleep: dormí, dormiste, durmió, dormimos, dormisteis, durmieron

                        like dormir        dormirse, to fall asleep             morir, to die (animal, plant, thing)       morirse, to die (person)          

          freír, to fry: freí, freíste, frió, freímos, freísteis, frieron

                        like freír            refreír, to refry                         reír, to laugh                            sonreír, to smile         

          ir, to go: fuí, fuiste, fué, fuimos, fuisteis, fueron         

          pedir, to ask a favor:   pedí, pediste, pidió, pedimos, pedisteis, pidieron

                        like pedir          competir, to compete               concebir, to conceive               derretir, to melt

                                                desleir, to dilute                       despedir, to say goodbye         desvestir, to undress

                                                desvestirse, to undress oneself                                                 embestir, to assault

                                                engreir, to make vain               expedir, to send off                  gemir, to groan

                                                impedir, to impede                   medir, to measure                    rendir, to yield

                                                rendirse, to surrender               repetir, to repeat                      revestir, to cover

                                                revestirse, to face someone or something                                  servir, to serve

                                                vestir, to dress                         vestirse , to dress oneself

          producir, to produce: produje, produjiste, produjo, produjimos, produjisteis, produjeron

                        like producir     aducir, to adduce                     conducir, to conduct, lead       deducir, to deduce

                                                inducir, to induce                     introducir, to introduce            lucir, to shine, excel

                                                reducir, to reduce                     seducir, to seduce                    traducir, to translate

          seguir, to follow: seguí, seguiste, sigo, seguimos, seguisteis, siguieron

                        like seguir:        conseguir, to get, obtain          perseguir, to persecute

          venir, to come: vine, viniste, vino, vinimos, vinisteis, vinieron

                        like venir:         circunvenir, to circumvent       convenir, to convene     intervenir, to intervene     prevenir, to prevent

                                                reconvenir, to reconvene          revenirse, to change one’s mind

 

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