Chapter 13   --   What have We Here?

Sometimes, we use verb expressions to describe a past action.  These expressions contain the verb to have or the verb to be and the past form of a verb to make sentences,
such as “I have been to Madrid” or "I was gone for two days."  These forms are called compound verbs, and are always made by using the verb to have or the verb to be and the past form of the main verb.
The verb haber is the Spanish equivalent of the auxilliary verb “to have”.  

In group 1, the past forms are made by adding -ado to the stem. In groups 2 and 3, the past forms are made by adding -ido to the stem.
All of the stems are regular.   When used with the verb haber, almost all of the past forms are regular.
The compound forms have the same usage in Spanish as in English.   The following examples show the usage.

The forms using “have” as the auxilliary verb are:

I have spoken

Yo he hablado

You have eaten

has comido

He has accepted

Él ha aceptado

She has danced

Ella ha bailado

You have established

Usted ha establecido

Who has finished

¿Quién ha finito?

We have walked

Nosotros hemos caminado

You have voted

Vosostros habéis votado

They have divided

Ellos han dividido

They have bought

Ellas han comprado

You have formed

Ustedes han formado

Who have worked

Qienes han trabajado

The forms using “had” as the auxilliary verb are:

I had swum

Yo había nadado

You had agreed

habías acordado

He had extended

Él había extendido

She had prepared

Ella había preparado

You had washed

Usted había lavado

Who had carried

Quién habia portado

We had invested

Nosotros habíamos investido

You had purchased

Vosotros habíais comprado

They had flown

Ellos habían volado

They had listed

Ellas habían listado

You had loved

Ustedes habían amado

Who had eaten

Quienes habian comido

The forms using “will have” as the auxilliary verb are:

I will have eaten

Yo habré comido

You will have recorded

habrás recordado

He will have earned

Él habrá ganado

She will have sung

Ella habrá cantado

You will have planted

Usted habrá plantado

Who will have finished

Quién habrá finito

We will have distributed

Nosotros habremos distribuido

You will have given

Vosotros habréis dado

They will have studied

Ellos habrán estudiado

They will have retained

Ellas habrán retenido

You will have read

Ustedes habrán leido

Who will have carried

Quienes habrán portado

The forms using “would have” as the auxilliary verb are:

I would have eaten

Yo habría comido

You would have recorded

habrías recordado

He would have earned

Él habría ganado

She would have sung

Ella habría cantado

You would have planted

Usted habría plantado

Who would have ordered

Quién habría ordenado

We would have distributed

Nosotros habríamos distribuido

You would have given

Vosotros habríais dado

They would have studied

Ellos habrían estudiado

They would have retained

Ellas habrían retenido

You would have read

Ustedes habrían leido

Who would have voted

Quienes habrían votado

Past Forms of Verbs

In group 1, the past forms are made by adding -ado to the stem. In groups 2 and 3, the past forms are made by adding -ido to the stem.
All the stems of the three groups are regular.

There are some verbs which are irregular in two ways.   First, some verbs have two past forms, a regular and an irregular form.
Second, some verbs have only an irregular past form.   The regular forms are used with haber.   The irregular forms are used with estar and ser.
Naturally, if only an irregular form exists, that form is used with haber.   The following table summarizes the forms.

Verb Regular form Irregular form
abrir, to open --- abierto, opened
abstraer, to abstract abstraido abstracto, abstracted
compeler, to compel compleido compulso, compelled
concluir, to conclude concluido concluso, concluded
   like concluir:
   excluir, to exclude excluido excluso, excluded
   incluir, to include incluido incluso, included
   confundir, to confuse confundido confuso, confused
convertir, to convert convertido converso, converted
   like convertir
   invertir, to invert invertido inverso, inverted
   corregir, to correct  corregido correcto, corrected
cubrir, to cover --- cubierto, covered
   like cubrir:
   descubrir, to discover --- descubierto, discovered
decir, to say  --- dicho, said
   like decir:
   bendecir, to bless bendecido bendito, blessed
   contradecir, to contradict  --- contradicho, contradicted
   desdecir, to disagree --- desdicho, disagreed
   maldecir, to curse maldecido maldito, cursed
   predecir, to predict  --- predicho, predicted
   elegir, to elect elegido electo, elected
escribir, to write --- escrito, written
   like escribir:
   describir, to describe --- descrito, described
   prescribir, to prescribe --- prescrito, prescribed
   proscribir, to proscribe --- proscrito, proscribed
   suscribir, to subscribe --- suscrito, subscribed
   transcribir, to transcribe --- transcrito, transcribed
extender, to extend  extendido extenso, extended
   like extender:
   pretender, to pretend pretendido pretenso, pretended
   subtender, to sustain subtendido substenso, sustained
   suspender, to suspend suspendido suspenso, suspended
fijar, to fix, fasten fijado  fijo, fixed, fastened
freìr, to fry freìdo  frito, fried
   like freìr
   refreìr, to refry refreìdo refrito, refried
   sofreìr, to fry lightly, brown sofreìdo sofrito, browned
hacer, to do, to make --- hecho, done, made
   like hacer:
   contrahacer, to counterfeit --- contrahecho, counterfeited
   deshacer, to undo --- deshecho, undone
   satisfacer, to satisfy --- satisfecho, satisfied
hartar, to overeat or drink, to stuff hartado harto, stuffed
imprimir, to print imprimido impreso, printed
ingerir, to insert ingerido ingerto, inserted
infundir, to infuse infundido infuso, infused
juntar, to join juntado junto, joined
manifestar, to manifest manifestado   manifiesto, manifested
morir, to die  --- muerto, died
nacer, to be born nacido nato, born
poner, to put --- puesto, put
   like poner:
   componer, to compose --- compuesto, composed
   descomponer, to decompose --- descompuesto, decomposed
   disponer, to dispose --- dispuesto, disposed
   exponer, to expose  --- expuesto, exposed
   imponer, to impose --- impuesto, imposed
   oponer, to oppose --- opuesto, opposed
   proponer, to propose --- propuesto, proposed
   reponer, to replace  --- repuesto, replaced
   suponer, to suppose --- supuesto, supposed
   transponer, to transpose --- transpuesto, transposed
poseer, to possess poseido poseso, possessed
prender, to grasp prendido prenso, grasped
proveer, to provide  proveido provisto, provided
romper, to break --- roto, broken
soltar, to loosen, untie soltado suelto, loosened, untied
teñir, to dye, tint teñido tinto, dyed, tinted
torcer, to twist torcido tuerto, twisted
tumefacerse, to swell, grow tumorous --- tumefacto, swollen
ver, to see --- visto, seen
   like ver:
   prever, to preview --- previsto, previewed
   rever, to review --- revisto, reviewed
volver, to turn: vuelto, turned
   like volver:
   devolver, to return --- devuelto, returned
   resolver, to resolve  --- resuelto, resolved
   revolver, to revolve --- revuelto, revolved
   solver, to solve --- suelto, solved


The book was returned

El libro fué devuelto.

The texts were written

Los textos fueron escritos.

The door is open

La puerta está abierta.

            examples:     The law has resolved the matter.         La ley ha resuelto el asunto.

                                The members have seen the report.    Los miembros han visto el reporte.

When used impersonally, the verb haber is translated into English in accord with its time frame.


Present tense: the form of the verb is hay which is used for singular and plural subjects.

there is no coffee.                                    no hay cafe

there are ten cars                                     hay diez carros


When it begins a sentence, the expression hay que ~~ translates into English as “it is necessary to ~~”. The word “que” is always followed by an infinitive.


Simple past tense: the form is hubo which is used for singular and plural subjects.

yesterday, there was an explosion         ayer hubo una explosión

On Monday, there was 10 cars.              En lunes, hubo 10 autos.

[ notice the clear expression of time ]


Imperfect past tense: the form is había which is used for singular and plural subjects.

Once, there were ten houses.                 una vez, había diez casas.

There were three men at home             había tres hombres en casa

[ notice that the time frame is undefined ]


Future tense: the form is habrá which is used for singular and plural subjects.

habrá paz en el mundo

there will be peace in the world

mañana habrá más comida

there will be more food tomorrow


Conditional tense: the form is habría which is used for singular and plural subjects.

¿Adónde habría ido él?

Where would he have gone?

habría la paz

there would be peace

Ella habría publicado la obra

She would have published the work


Future perfect: the form is habrá followed by a past participle.

el contador nos dijo que para mañana habrá terminado el reporte

The accountant told us that he will have finished the report

This book is available from under item number 3352644. Books purchased from Lulu are accompanied by a complete list of irregular verbs and all of their forms.

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