Chapter 13   --   What have We Here?

 

Sometimes, we use verb expressions to describe a past action.  These expressions contain the verb to have or the verb to be and the past form of a verb to make sentences, such as “I have been to Madrid” or "I was gone for two days."  These forms are called compound verbs, and are always made by using the verb to have or the verb to be and the past form of the main verb.   The verb haber is the Spanish equivalent of the auxilliary verb “to have”.   In group 1, the past forms are made by adding -ado to the stem. In groups 2 and 3, the past forms are made by adding -ido to the stem.   All of the stems are regular.   When used with the verb haber, almost all of the past forms are regular.   The compound forms have the same usage in Spanish as in English.   The following examples show the usage.

 

Thet forms using “have” as the auxilliary verb are:

          I have spoken                           Yo he hablado

          You have eaten                         has comido

          He has accepted                        Él ha aceptado

          She has danced                         Ella ha bailado

          You have established               Usted ha establecido

          We have walked                       Nosotros hemos caminado

          You have voted                        Vosostros habéis votado

          They have divided                    Ellos han dividido

          They have bought                     Ellas han comprado

          You have formed                      Ustedes han formado  

 

The forms using “had” as the auxilliary verb are:

          I had swum                               Yo había nadado

          You had agreed                        habías acordado

          He had extended                       Él había extendido

          She had prepared                     Ella había preparado

          You had washed                       Usted había lavado

          We had invested                       Nosotros habíamos investido

          You had purchased                   Vosotros habíais comprado

          They had flown                        Ellos habían volado

          They had listed                         Ellas habían listado

          You had loved                          Ustedes habían amado

 

The forms using “will have” as the auxilliary verb are:

          I will have eaten                       Yo habré comido

          You will have recorded            habrás recordado

          He will have earned                  Él habrá ganado

          She will have sung                    Ella habrá cantado

          You will have planted              Usted habrá planteado

          We will have distributed           Nosotros habremos distribuido

          You will have given                  Vosotros habréis dado

          They will have studied             Ellos habrán estudiado

          They will have retained            Ellas habrán retenido

          You will have read                  Ustedes habrán leido

 

The forms using “would have” as the auxilliary verb are:

          I would have eaten                  Yo habría comido

          You would have recorded        habrías recordado

          He would have earned              Él habría ganado

          She would have sung                Ella habría cantado

          You would have planted          Usted habría planteado

          We would have distributed       Nosotros habríamos distribuido

          You would have given              Vosotros habríais dado

          They would have studied         Ellos habrían estudiado

          They would have retained        Ellas habrían retenido

          You would have read               Ustedes habrían leido

 

Past Forms of Verbs

In group 1, the past forms are made by adding -ado to the stem. In groups 2 and 3, the past forms are made by adding -ido to the stem.   All the stems of the three groups are regular.

There are some verbs which are irregular in two ways.   First, some verbs have two past forms, a regular and an irregular form.   Second, some verbs have only an irregular past form.   The regular forms are used with haber.   The irregular forms are used with estar and ser.   Naturally, if only an irregular form exists, that form is used with haber.   The following table summarizes the forms.

 

Verb                                                   Regular form           Irregular form

abrir , to open                                     ---                          abierto, opened

abstraer , to abstract                           abstraido               abstracto, abstracted

compeler , to compel                           compelido              compulso, compelled

concluir , to conclude                          concluido               concluso, concluded

          like concluir:

          excluir, to exclude                     excluido                 excluso, excluded

          incluir, to include                      incluido                 incluso, included

confundir , to confuse                         confundido            confuso, confused

convertir , to convert                           convertido              converso, converted

          like convertir

          invertir, to invert                       invertido                inverso, inverted

corregir , to correct                            corregido               correcto, corrected

cubrir , to cover                                  ---                          cubierto, covered

          like cubrir:

          descubrir, to discover               ---                          descubierto, discovered

decir , to say                                       ---                          dicho, said

          like decir:

          bendecir , to bless                    bendecido              bendito, blessed

          contradecir, to contradict        ---                          contradicho, contradicted

          desdecir, to disagree                 ---                          desdicho, disagreed

          maldecir, to curse                     maldecido              maldito, cursed

          predecir, to predict                  ---                          predicho, predicted

elegir , to elect                                   elegido                   electo, elected

escribir , to write                                 ---                          escrito, written

          like escribir:

          describir, to describe                 ---                          descrito, described

          prescribir, to prescribe              ---                          prescrito, prescribed

          proscribir, to proscribe             ---                          proscrito, proscribed

          suscribir, to subscribe               ---                          suscrito, subscribed

          transcribir, to transcribe           ---                          transcrito, transcribed

extender , to extend                            extendido               extenso, extended

          like extender:

          pretender, to pretend                pretendido             pretenso, pretended

          subtender, to sustain                 subtendido             substenso, sustained

          suspender, to suspend              suspendido            suspenso, suspended

fijar , to fix, fasten                              fijado                    fijo, fixed, fastened

freìr , to fry                                         freìdo                    frito, fried

          like freìr

          refreìr, to refry                          refreìdo                  refrito, refried

          sofreìr, to fry lightly, brown     sofreìdo                 sofrito, browned

hacer , to do, to make; hecho:done, made

          like hacer:

          contrahacer, to counterfeit       ---                          contrahecho, counterfeited

          deshacer, to undo                     ---                          deshecho, undone

          satisfacer, to satisfy                  ---                          satisfecho, satisfied

hartar , to overeat or drink, to stuff    hartado                 harto, stuffed

imprimir , to print                               imprimido              impreso, printed

ingerir , to insert                                 ingerido                 ingerto, inserted

infundir , to infuse                               infundido               infuso, infused

juntar , to join                                     juntado                  junto, joined

manifestar , to manifest                       manifestado           manifiesto, manifested

morir , to die                                      ---                          muerto, died

nacer , to be born                                nacido                   nato, born

poner , to put                                      ---                          puesto, put

          like poner:

          componer, to compose              ---                          compuesto, composed

          descomponer, to decompose     ---                          descompuesto, decomposed

          disponer, to dispose                  ---                          dispuesto, disposed

          exponer, to expose                   ---                          expuesto, exposed

          imponer, to impose                   ---                          impuesto, imposed

          oponer, to oppose                     ---                          opuesto, opposed

          proponer, to propose               ---                          propuesto, proposed

          reponer, to replace                   ---                          repuesto, replaced

          suponer, to suppose                 ---                          supuesto, supposed

          transponer, to transpose          ---                          transpuesto, transposed

poseer , to possess                              poseido                  poseso, possessed

prender , to grasp                                prendido                prenso, grasped

proveer , to provide                            proveido                provisto, provided

romper , to break                                ---                          roto, broken

soltar , to loosen, untie                        soltado                  suelto, loosened, untied

teñir , to dye, tint                                teñido                     tinto, dyed, tinted

torcer , to twist                                    torcido                   tuerto, twisted

tumefacerse , to swell, grow timorous   ---                        tumefacto, swollen

ver , to see: visto, seen

          like ver:

          prever, to preview                     ---                          previsto, previewed

          rever, to review                         ---                          revisto, reviewed

volver , to turn: vuelto, turned

          like volver:

          devolver, to return                    ---                          devuelto, returned

          resolver, to resolve                   ---                          resuelto, resolved

          revolver, to revolve                   ---                          revuelto, revolved

          solver, to solve                          ---                          suelto, solved

 

          examples:    The book was returned             El libro fué devuelto.

                              The texts were written              Los textos fueron escritos.

                              The door is open                      La puerta está abierta  

 

            examples:     The law has resolved the matter.        La ley ha resuelto el asunto.

                                The members have seen the report.    Los miembros han visto el reporte.

 

This book is available from lulu.com under item number 3352644. Books purchased from Lulu are accompanied by a complete list of irregular verbs and all of their forms.

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