A linguistic system is a series of different sounds combined with a series of different ideas. Ferdinand de Saussare (1857-1913), Swiss linguist
Chapter 18 -- The “ ing” form of verbs
Similar to English, the “ ing” form of a verb, called the gerund, is formed by taking the stem of a verb, and adding an ending. An example from English is the verb “change”. We drop the letter “e”, and add the ending “ ing” to form “changing”. In other cases, such as the verb “walk”, we just add “ ing” to form “walking”.
A similar process occurs in Spanish, namely that certain endings are added to the verb stems.
In Group 1, the ending -ando is added to the stem of the infinitive.
examples: cantar: cant + ando = cantando
formar: form + ando = formando
Fortunately, group 1, which is the largest of the verb groups, has no irregularities.
In Groups 2 and 3 , the ending -iendo is added to the stem.
examples: comer: com + iendo = comiendo
vivir: viv + iendo = viviendo
In group 2, there is only one irregularity, which the verb poder, having the form pudiendo.
In Groups 2 and 3, if the infinitive ends in a double vowel ( such as caer, creer, fluir, traer, and so on), the ending -yendo is used. Thus, cayendo, creyendo, fluyendo, trayendo, and so forth.
In group 3, the the following verbs have irregular forms.
consentir, to consent: consintiendo
like consenter adherir, to adhere advertir, to advertise
arrepentir, to repent asentir, to assent, agree concernir, to concern
conferir, to confer, award consentir, to consent, allow controvertir, to controvert, dispute
convertir, to convert deferir, to defer diferir, to differ, disagree
digerir, to digest divertir, to enjoy hervir, to boil
inferir, to infer ingerir, to ingest invertir, to invert
mentir, to lie, speak falsely pervertir, to pervert preferir, to prefer
preterir, to leave out proferir, to profer referir, to refer
rendir, to yield rendirse, to surrender requerir, to require
sentir, to regret, to feel sorry sentirse, to feel well or ill sugerir, to suggest
transferir, to transfer
decir, to say, to tell: diciendo
like decir bendecir, to bless contradecir,to contradict
desdecir, to disagree interdecir, to forbid maldecir, to curse
predecir, to predict
dormir, to sleep: durmiendo
like dormir dormirse, to fall asleep morir, to die (thing or animal)
morirse, to die (a person)
ir, to go: yendo
pedir, to ask a favor or a price: pidiendo
like pedir ceñir, to wear tight fitting clothing, encircle, to put on clothing
competir, to compete concebir, to conceive derretir, to melt
despedir, to say goodbye embestir, to assault, attack expedir, to send off
gemir, to groan heñir, to knead impedir, to impede
medir, to measure rendir, to yield rendirse, to surrender
revestir, to cover revestirse, to face someone reñir, to quarrel
repetir, to repeat servir, to serve teñir, to tint, dye
vestir, to dress vestirse, to dress oneself
reírse, to laugh: riendo
like reír freír, to fry refreír, to refry
sonreír, to smile
venir, to come: viniendo
like venir: circunvenir, to circumvent convenir, to convene
intervenir, to intervene prevenir, to prevent reconvenir, to reconvene
revenirse, to change one’s mind
The “ ing” form is used with the verb estar (to be), and with verbs of motion to stress that an activity is, was, or will be in progress.
Some examples follow.
The surprises just keep coming. Las sorpresas siguen viniendo .
The children are playing. Los niños están jugando .
She left crying. Ella salió llorando.
Please, keep reading. Por favor, siga leyendo.
They will continue studying. Ellos continuarán estudiando.
In English,it is common to use gerunds as the names of things, especially in reference to activities. We say “Bowling is fun. Fishing is restful. Swimming is good exercise.” and so on. The Spanish equivalent is the article “el” plus an infinitive.
example: Swimming is good exercise. El nadar es buen ejercicio.
Another difference is the usage after prepositions. Some examples follow.
She entered without saying anything. Ella entró sin decir nada.
We talked instead of playing tennis. Hablamos en vez de jugar tenis.
Upon winning the race, the team cheered. Al ganar la carrera, el equipo vitoreó .
In English, gerunds are often used to describe things (“a winding road”), but this usage does not occur in Spanish. The Spanish form in such cases will be an adjective.
This book is available from lulu.com under item number 3352644. Books purchased from Lulu are accompanied by a complete list of irregular verbs and all of their forms.
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