Language is a part of our organism and no less complicated than it.

Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889–1951)

 

Chapter 7   --   The Spanish verbs

 

Verbs are action words, and tell what is being done.   In Spanish, verbs express three ideas, namely, who is doing the action, what the action is, and when the action was done.

All Spanish verbs are composed of two parts, a stem, and a group ending.   The verbs are separated into three groups, the - ar, - er, and - ir groups.

          Examples :    habl + ar     = hablar ( group 1)  

                             vend + er      = vender (group 2)

                             abr + ir       = abrir (group 3)

The stem plus a group ending is called an infinitive, that is the “to” form of a verb.   For example, hablar (to speak), vender (to sell), abrir (to open).   When a dictionary is consulted, the infinitives will be listed.

In Spanish, the infinitive form is used in the following ways.

          1. when a verb is meant without an expression of time

                Joseph wants to learn Spanish.                             José quiere aprender el español.

                In order to win, it is necessary to practice.           Para ganar, es necesario practicar.

 

          2. when an action is meant as the name of something

 

          3. after a preposition, Spanish uses only the infinitive

 

Rule: After a preposition, ONLY the infinitive verb form is used.

Spanish verb structureThe following information shows the Spanish verb structure, and the endings of the regular verbs. The reader will note that the only differences between the verbs of groups 2 and 3 occur in the present tense forms of "nosotros" and "vosotros".

Stem + group endings = infinitive
|                                               |__ + future endings = future tense
|                                               |__ + conditional endings = conditional tense
|
| ___ + imperfect endings = imperfect past tense
|
| ___ + past endings = past tense
|                                               |__stem of 3rd person singular + gerund endings = gerund
|                                               |__stem of 3rd person plural + past subjunctive endings = past subjunctive tense
|
| ___ + present endings = present tense
|                                               |__ stem of 1st person singular + present subjunctive endings = pres. subj. tense
|
| ___ + past participle endings = past participle
| ___                                        |__ active forms of estar, haber, and ser + past participle = compound forms

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Regular verb forms

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Simple

Imperfect

 

 

Present

Past

Group 1 verbs

Present

Past

Past

Future

Conditional

Subjunctive

Subjunctive

  -ar Verbs

Tense

Tense

Tense

Tense

Tense

Tense

Tense

model: parlar

I speak

I spoke

I was speaking

I will speak

I would speak

I may speak

Had I spoken

Yo

parlo

parlé

parlaba

parlaré

parlaría

parle

parlara

parlas

parlaste

parlabas

parlarás

parlarías

parles

parlaras

Él, Ella

parla

parló

parlaba

parlará

parlaría

parle

parlara

    Usted, Quién

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nosotros, -as

parlamos

parlamos

parlábamos

parlaremos

parlaríamos

parlemos

parlaramos

Vosotros, -as

parláis

parlasteis

parlabais

parlaréis

parlaríais

parléis

parlaráis

Ellos, Ellas

parlan

parlaron

parlaban

parlarán

parlarían

parlen

parlaran

    Ustedes, Quienes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Group 2 verbs

 

Simple

Imperfect

 

 

Present

Past

  -er Verbs

Present

Past

Past

Future

Conditional

Subjunctive

Subjunctive

model: vender

Tense

Tense

Tense

Tense

Tense

Tense

Tense

Yo

vendo

vendí

vendía

venderé

vendería

venda

vendiera

vendes

vendiste

vendías

venderás

venderías

vendas

vendieras

Él, Ella

vende

vendió

vendía

venderá

vendería

venda

vendiera

    Usted

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nosotros, -as

vendemos

vendimos

vendíamos

venderemos

venderíamos

vendamos

vendiéramos

Vosotros, -as

vendéis

vendís

vendíais

venderéis

venderíais

vendáis

vendierais

Ellos, Ellas

venden

vendieron

vendían

venderán

venderían

vendan

vendieran

    Ustedes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Group 3 verbs

 

Simple

Imperfect

 

 

Present

Past

 -ir Verbs

Present

Past

Past

Future

Conditional

Subjunctive

Subjunctive

model: vivir

Tense

Tense

Tense

Tense

Tense

Tense

Tense

Yo

vivo

viví

vivía

viviré

viviría

viva

viviera

vives

viviste

vivías

vivirás

vivirías

vivas

vivieras

Él, Ella

vive

vivió

vivía

vivirá

viviría

viva

viviera

    Usted

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nosotros, -as

vivimos

vivimos

vivíamos

viviremos

viviríamos

vivamos

viviéramos

Vosotros, -as

vivís

vivisteis

vivíais

viviréis

viviríais

viváis

vivierais

Ellos, Ellas

viven

vivieron

vivían

vivirán

vivirían

vivan

vivieran

    Ustedes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This book is available from lulu.com under item number 3352644. Books purchased from Lulu are accompanied by a complete list of irregular verbs and all of their forms.

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