Chapter 9   --   Future time

 

We continue our study of the verb forms with the Future Tense (shall or will in English), which is used to describe an action that will take place.   In this tense, one set of endings is added to the infinitive.

The endings are -é, -ás, -á, -emos, -éis, -án.

Group 1     regular verbs         example: hablar, to speak

  Infinitive       Ending           Spanish                                   English

hablar é yo hablaré I shall, will speak
hablar ás hablarás You (familiar, singular) shall, will speak
hablar á él hablará He shall, will speak
hablar á ella hablará She shall, will speak
hablar á usted hablará You (polite, singular) shall, will speak
hablar á quién hablará Who shall, will speak
hablar emos nosotras, -os hablaremos We shall, will speak
hablar éis vosotras, -os hablaréis You (familiar, plural) shall, will speak
hablar án ellas, -os hablarán They shall, will speak
hablar án ustedes hablarán You (polite, plural) shall, will speak
hablar án quienes hablarán Who shall, will speak

  In group 1, there are no irregular verbs.

 

Group 2     regular verbs         example: vender, to sell      The endings are -é, -ás, -á, -emos, -éis, -án.

  Infinitive      Ending           Spanish                                       English

vender é yo venderé I shall, will sell
vender ás venderás You (familiar, singular) shall, will sell
vender á él venderá He shall, will sell
vender á ella venderá She shall, will sell
vender á usted venderá You (polite, singular) shall, will sell
vender á quién venderá Who shall, will sell
vender emos nosotras, -os venderemos We shall, will sell
vender éis vosotras, -os venderéis You (familiar, plural) shall, will sell
vender án ellas, -os venderán They shall, will sell
vender án ustedes venderán You (polite, plural) shall, will sell
vender án quienes venderán Who shall, will sell

In group 2 the following verbs are irregular:

          caber (to fit), haber (to have), poder (to be able), querer (to want), saber (to know)

                    - the infinitive is shortened by dropping the final vowel; thus cabr-, habr-, podr-, querr-, sabr-

          poner (to put), tener (to have), valer (to be worth) - the final vowel (e) is changed to d; thus pondr-, tendr-, valdr-

          hacer (to do) is changed to har; thus haré, harás, hará, haremos, haréis, harán

Compound forms have the same irregularities as the basic form.

          thus , componer becomes compondré, compondrás, compondrá, compondremos, compondréis, compondrán

 

Group 3     regular verbs         example: abrir, to open      The endings are -é, -ás, -á, -emos, -éis, -án.

 

  Infinitive      Ending           Spanish                                       English

abrir é yo abriré I shall, will open
abrir ás abrirás You (familiar, singular) shall, will open
abrir á él abrirá He shall, will open
abrir á ella abrirá She shall, will open
abrir á usted abrirá You (polite, singular) shall, will open
abrir á quién abrirá Who shall, will open
abrir emos nosotras, -os abriremos We shall, will open
abrir éis vosotras, -os abriréis You (familiar, plural) shall, will open
abrir án ellas, -os abrirán They shall, will open
abrir án ustedes abrirán You (polite, plural) shall, will open
abrir án quienes abrirán Who shall, will open

note: in group 3 the following verbs are irregular

          decir (to say) is changed to dir; thus, diré, dirás, dirá, diremos, diréis, dirán

          salir (to go out), venir(to come) - the final vowel is changed to d; thus saldr-, vendr-

Compound verbs have the same irregularities as the base verb.

          thus bendecir becomes bendiré, bendirás, bendirá, bendiremos, bendiréis, bendirán

 

Three notes:

1.   The unusual and illogical American expression such as “...will be opening...” is expressed in Spanish as the simple future, as it should be in English.

2.  Unlike English, Spanish makes no distinction between shall and will. The sense of obligation implied by the word shall is expressed by using the verb deber.

3.   When requests are made using the simple future in English, such as “Will you please close the door?”, the Spanish equivalent is the use of the verb querer in the present tense, “¿ Quieres cerrar la puerta?

 

There is a difference between future tense, and future time.   Often, in both English and Spanish, future time is expressed with verbs in the present tense.   It is common to say “I am going to work tomorrow.”   This expression uses the present active verb even though the event will occur in the future.   In Spanish, it is common to use the present tense when an action is imminent.   The sentence “I will carry it.” may be said as “ Yo lo porto” or “ Yo lo portaré.”   If the action is imminent, the sentence “ Yo lo porto.” is more common.   For emphasis, the sentence is often rendered as “Lo porto yo.

 

This book is available from lulu.com under item number 3352644. Books purchased from Lulu are accompanied by a complete list of irregular verbs and all of their forms.

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