Past Forms of Verbs


In group 1, the past forms are made by adding -ado to the stem.  The past forms of the -er and -ir verbs are made by adding -ido to the stem.  All the stems of both groups are regular.


There are some verbs which are irregular in two ways.  First, some verbs have two past forms, a regular and an irregular form.  Second, some verbs have only an irregular past form.  The regular forms are used with haber.  The irregular forms are used with estar and ser.  Naturally, if only an irregular form exists, that form is used with haber.  The following table summarizes the forms.


Verb                                                                                         Regular form            Irregular form

abrir, to open                                                                                                           abierto, opened

abstraer, to abstract                                                                 abstraido                 abstracto, abstracted

bendecir, to bless                                                                      bendecido                 bendito, blessed

                maldecir, to curse                                                     maldecido                 maldito, cursed

compeler, to compel                                                                 compleido                 compulso, compelled

concluir, to conclude                                                                 concluido                 concluso, concluded

                excluir, to exclude                                                     excluido                   excluso, excluded

                incluir, to include                                                      incluido                    incluso, included

confundir, to confuse                                                                confundido               confuso, confused

convertir, to convert                                                                  convertido                converso, converted

                invertir, to invert                                                       invertido                  inverso, inverted

corregir, to correct                                                                    corregido                 correcto, corrected

cubrir, to cover                                                                         cubierto, covered

                descubrir, to discover                                                descubierto, discovered

decir, to say                                                                                                              dicho, said

                contradecir, to contradict                                                                           contradicho, contradicted

                desdecir, to disagree                                                                                 desdicho, disagreed

                predecir, to predict                                                                                    predicho, predicted

elegir, to elect                                                                          elegido                     electo, elected

escribir, to write                                                                                                       escrito, written

                describir, to describe                                                                                 descrito, described

                prescribir, to prescribe                                                                              prescrito, prescribed

                proscribir, to proscribe                                                                              proscrito, proscribed

                suscribir, to subscribe                                                                                suscrito, subscribed

                transcribir, to transcribe                                                                            transcrito, transcribed

extender, to extend                                                                   extendido                 extenso, extended

                pretender, to pretend                                                pretendido                pretenso, pretended

                subtender, to sustain                                                 subtendido               substenso, sustained

                suspender, to suspend                                               suspendido               suspenso, suspended

fijar, to fix, fasten                                                                     fijado                       fijo, fixed, fastened

freìr, to fry                                                                                freído                       frito, fried

                refreìr, to refry                                                          refreído                    refrito, refried

                sofreìr, to fry lightly, brown                                        sofreído                    sofrito, browned

hacer, to do, to make                                                                                                hecho, done, made

                contrahacer, to counterfeit                                                                        contrahecho, counterfeited

                deshacer, to undo                                                                                     deshecho, undone

                satisfacer, to satisfy                                                                                  satisfecho, satisfied

hartar, to overeat or drink, to stuff                                             hartado                   harto, stuffed

imprimir, to print                                                                      imprimido                impreso, printed

ingerir, to insert                                                                        ingerido                   ingerto, inserted

infundir, to infuse                                                                     infundido                 infuso, infused

juntar, to join                                                                           juntado                    junto, joined

manifestar, to manifest                                                             manifestado             manifiesto, manifested

morir, to die                                                                                                             muerto, died

nacer, to be born                                                                      nacido                     nato, born

poner, to put                                                                                                            puesto, put

                componer, to compose                                                                              compuesto, composed

                descomponer, to decompose                                                                     descompuesto, decomposed

                disponer, to dispose                                                                                  dispuesto, disposed

                exponer, to expose                                                                                    expuesto, exposed

                imponer, to impose                                                                                   impuesto, imposed

                oponer, to oppose                                                                                     opuesto, opposed

                proponer, to propose                                                                                propuesto, proposed

                reponer, to replace                                                                                    repuesto, replaced

                suponer, to suppose                                                                                  supuesto, supposed

                transponer, to transpose                                                                           transpuesto, transposed

poseer, to possess                                                                     poseido                    poseso, possessed

prender, to grasp                                                                      prendido                  prenso, grasped

proveer, to provide                                                                    proveido                  provisto, provided

romper, to break                                                                                                       roto, broken

soltar, to loosen, untie                                                              soltado                    suelto, loosened, untied

teñir, to dye, tint                                                                       teñido                      tinto, dyed, tinted

torcer, to twist                                                                          torcido                     tuerto, twisted

tumefacerse, to swell, grow timorous                                                                         tumefacto, swollen

ver, to see                                                                                                                visto, seen

                prever, to preview                                                                                     previsto, previewed

                rever, to review                                                                                        revisto, reviewed

volver, to turn                                                                                                           vuelto, turned

                devolver, to return                                                                                    devuelto, returned

                resolver, to resolve                                                                                    resuelto, resolved

                revolver, to revolve                                                                                   revuelto, revolved

                solver, to solve                                                                                         suelto, solved


                examples:                 The book was returned              El libro fué devuelto.

                                                The texts were written              Los textos fueron escritos.

                                                The door is open                       La puerta está abierta